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It is well known in medical circles that blood sugar levels effect our energy, eye-sphincterour muscles. Even those of us who are not diabetic have had that “low sugar” feeling.  Unfortunately for diabetics it is even worse.  What feels “low” to someone without diabetes, feels “lethargic” to someone with diabetes.

Fat and sugar are the fuels muscles use as energy.  When sugar (glucose) is out of balance muscles under-perform or act in erratic ways.  The pupil of the human eye consists of two sets of muscles, both of which are responsible for pupillary response.

Eye Muscular Anatomy

The circular sphincter pupillae muscles causes the pupil to constrict or contract (miosis).  A second set of opposing, radial, muscles, the dilator pupillae, cause the pupil to dilate or expand (mydriasis).  These muscles work in tandem, relaxing and contracting as needed to adjust the amount of light entering the eye.

pupilary-process

These muscles, like any other in the human body, respond to levels of blood sugar and provide interesting insights into the human condition.

The GlucoSight Insight

Glucosight takes advantage of a singular hypothesis, that the pupillary muscles would be an early and reliable indicator of glucose levels in the body.

Research proved this hypothesis to be true.

GlucoSight Technology

GlucoSight measures the diameter of the pupil before, during, and, after stimuli.  This set of data is then compared to a baseline that is established for each individual person.  By performing this comparison, GlucoSight can determine if the individual is currently within their ideal blood sugar range or outside of it.Comparison

The process for measuring the eye takes roughly 10 seconds.  An individual with a GlucoSight looks into the light-isolation monocle and activates the phone-based application. The results appear in nearly no time. No pain, no blood.

GlucoSight Revealed

The results of this process are very startling. Watch the video below

To achieve this effect, the users places their eye against an eye cup which isolates the pupil from ambient light and then bathes the pupil in infrared light that allows the infrared video camera to capture imagery. The a few second in, a microsecond visible light is flashed, causing the pupillary muscles to respond, contracting the pupil.  The visible light is turned off in less than a second and the pupil then returns to darkness, causing it to once again dilate. The reaction time and data are gathered and analyzed against the normalized baseline created during the first couple weeks of using the GlucoSight, known as the “training period”.

From this point forward is essentially a process of analysis and comparison that allow the GlucoSight to provide the user with feedback, on their smartphone, as to whether their blood sugar is in the optimal range or out of range.  In the simplest form, this is the process although the analysis has considerable more complexity.

The Changing Concept of “Normal”

An interesting note on the concept of normal blood sugar levels. Most endocrinologists recommend adhering to a standardized chart.  blood-sugar-chart What research has revealed is, in actuality, every diabetic’s biology requires a flexible definition of “normal“. During analysis, while a particular participant was told to get their blood sugar within normally prescribed ranges (see the chart), imagery of the pupil clearly showed abnormal muscle behavior as the diabetic tried to get their blood sugar down into the recommended range.

deformityIn the image shown, the diabetics eye showed consistent deformity when they tried to get blood sugar into mid-100’s range. As is shown by the red line, the muscles, in this person, on one side of the pupil start to lose their ability to uniformly contract as they try to get into the “normal” range.  This person also expressed feeling ill and generally unable to ever get to the normal range despite repeated efforts.

This raises the question, can GlucoSight provide a means of determining a diabetics recommended blood sugar range? More research is clearly needed.